Maryann H. Kwakwa

Postdoctoral Fellow

Georgetown University

Intercultural Center (ICC) 674A
37th and O Streets, N.W., Washington D.C. 20057

Phone: 708.701.3257


Kwakwa Curriculum Vitae

Research Interests:

American Politics

Civic Engagement

Race and Ethnic Politics 


Political Participation


Democratic Citizenship


When you hear the term “not college-educated,” whom do you think of? What traits do you attribute to the people in this category? What assumptions do you make about their behavior? I contend that political scientists have wrongly assumed that a certain subset of the population belongs in the former category. Whether implicit or explicit, the extant literature tends to conceptualize college-educated individuals as those who have graduated with a college degree. I argue that this is an assumption that undervalues the political significance of undergraduate college experiences. Thus, in my dissertation I ask: what is the effect of undergraduate college experiences on civic engagement?


Through logit regression analysis, 21 classroom observations, and 63 interviews, I show that the civic engagement of those with some college experience is systematically higher than those who never went to college. In addition, I assess the extent to which means-ends analysis and social networks effect the civic engagement of those in the “some college category” and (enrolled) undergraduates at four college institutions. My empirical results support the contention that exposure to a post-secondary educational environment increases the likelihood of engaging in civic behaviors, like joining a protest, signing a petition, donating money to a cause, and voting. However, they also reveal that socioeconomic mitigating factors undermine the positive effect of the college environment in various ways. I conclude that conceptualizing education as the “highest degree obtained” is not an adequate measure of an individual’s educational experience, and the impact that it can have over time. By shifting our focus from degree receipt to educational experience, we can capture the effect of the college environment on civic engagement with greater precision.

Keywords: Civic engagement, higher education, measurement error, college experience.